CFI, Oxford. swamp mahogany ECOLOGY E. robusta naturally occurs from sea level to 100 m above sea level, mainly on wet soils and freshwater swamps. Berkeley, CA: US. Only five species occur exclusively outside of Australia.E. It is highly tolerant to seasonal waterlogging. Medicinal plants of the world. Carlowitz PG von, 1986. The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. The species is widely adaptable and has been introduced into many tropical, subtropical, and warm-temperate climates including Puerto Rico, southern Florida, coastal California, and Hawaii. Coleoptera borers (Brazil) and cockchafers (Vietnam) are also reported pests of E. robusta (see review in Fenton et al, 1977). Firewood crops. North American Forestry Commission. xx + 508pp. Working with mycorrhizas in forestry and agriculture., ix + 374 pp. It can maintain itself in valley bottoms and swamps. Therefore, the probability of this species colonizing new habitats or being intentionally introduced into new habitats remains high. Hawaii, USA: College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii. Occurs in a very narrow coastal belt from north of Rockhampton in Queensland to Jervis Bay in New South Wales. It is widely planted as a timber tree, and is considered to be invasive in Hawaiʻi and Réunion, and has become naturalised in Florida. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html, PROTA, 2014. Native to Southeastern Australia. For example, six-year-old trees near San Francisco, USA, survived temperatures as low as -9°C and showed signs of only temporary damage to foliage (King and Krugman, 1980). 101. Australian Journal of Botany, 36(1):41-66. Growth of 11 introduced tree species on selected forest sites in Hawaii. Waterlogging modifies growth, water use and ion concentrations in seedlings of salt-treated Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. robusta and E. globulus. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Little EL Jr, 1983. Australian Biological Resources Study, Department of the Environment and Energy, Canberra. E. robusta occurs naturally in Australia, within a narrow coastal strip from southern New South Wales (near Nowra) to coastal south-eastern Queensland (north-west of Bundaberg). [Die industrielle Nutzung der Mikrovermehrung.] Adult leaves disjunct, narrow-lanceolate or lanceolate, 10–20 cm long, 1–3 cm wide, green, dull, concolorous. Base de dados nacional de espécies exóticas invasora (National database of exotic invasive species). U.S. For. Fitzg. Sta. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. Rockwood DL, Meskimen GF, 1991. ; 24 pl. by Grubben GJH, Denton OA]. The wood of E. robusta forms excellent stakes used in irrigation systems, and for conveyor-belt slats used in the sugar industry. Eucalyptus seed. Serv. 4th ed. Dordrecht, Germany: Kluwer, 247-265. novus (see review in Fenton et al., 1977; El-Gholl et al., 1993). The specific epithet (marginata) is a Latin word meaning "furnished with a border". The eucalypts. South-east Asia, Northern Australia and the Pacific. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. Medicinal plants of east and southeast Asia. linearis R.T.Baker & H.G.Sm. These monospecific plantations have resulted in the conversion of open ecosystems into forest ecosystems and in the loss of native biodiversity by shading, soil exposure and erosion, allelopathic activity and important modifications in water infiltration and nutrient regimes (Sax, 2002; Orwa et al., 2009; I3N-Brazil, 2014). Eucalyptus robusta, commonly known as swamp mahogany or swamp messmate, is a tree native to eastern Australia.Growing in swampy or waterlogged soils, it is up to 30 m (98 ft) high with thick spongy reddish brown bark and dark green broad leaves, which help form a dense canopy.The white to cream flowers appear in autumn and winter. Wood in Australia: types, properties and uses. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Soils are typically heavy clays, but also light sandy clays (Marcar et al., 1995). Tests of 36 Eucalyptus species in northern California. ; 22 pl. Ruskin FR, 1983. First introduced in the 1880's, it … ; 73 pp. Welcome to the India Biodiversity Portal - A repository of information designed to harness and disseminate collective intelligence on the biodiversity of the Indian subcontinent. Eucalyptus robusta is a tree normally attaining heights of 25-30 m and diameters of 1-1.2 m (giant specimens as tall as 55 m and with a trunk of 25 m are found in Hawaii); ... DOCUMENTED SPECIES DISTRIBUTION The map above shows countries where the species has been planted. ), leafblister sawfly, gumtree hoppers (Eurymela sp. 249. Distribution Maps Species Information Tools & Training My EDDMapS About swampmahogany Eucalyptus robusta Sm. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/, Grace JK, Ewart DM, Tome CHM, 1996. Pers. This species is Introduced in the United States. Common trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Uppsala, Sweden: International Rural Development Centre, University of Agricultural Sciences, 45-58. Clemson A, 1985. Forest Ecology and Management, 63(2-3):135-152; 14 ref. ), but now widely introduced in tropical and subtropical areas. The fruiting pedicel is 5-12 mm long. ... though several other species within the Eucalyptus genus have been reported to cause various allergic reactions. General Technical Report, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, No. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 20(1):1-13; 27 ref. Marcar NE, 1993. 273 pp. Online Database. Truck beds, weather-boards for houses, flooring, interior trim and panelling are made from E. robusta (Skolmen, 1974; Durst, 1988). 3. flower bud 3 vols. According to Little (1983), it is the best adapted species to Puerto Rico. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 19 pp. with more than 85,000 entries. Skolmen RG, 1963. Most commonly planted reforestation species in the state. robusta is commonly used for fuelwood in many parts of the world. Lowland tropical hardwoods. Oct 24, 2017 - Explore Stone Koo's board "Eucalyptus robusta" on Pinterest. Agrociencia (Montecillo), 42(3):253-266. http://www.colpos.mx/agrocien/agrociencia.htm. Botanical descriptions of this species are available (Brooker and Kleinig, 1983; 1994; Chippendale, 1988; Hill, 1991). of ref. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. vol. Eucalyptus grandis E. grandis is probably most widely planted eucalypt for industrial wood production, with an estimated plantation area of about 2 million ha in 1987 (Burgess 1988). Sta. Northern Australia. ; 23 pp. In: Burns RM, Mosquera M, eds. Uses Pulpwood Species Eucalyptus rigens Brooker & Hopper – eucalyptus P: Species Eucalyptus rigidula Maiden P: Species Eucalyptus risdonii Hook. Biomass production by fast-growing trees. Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. Wagner WI, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, 1999. The bark is rough and persistent to the small branches, thick, held in coarse, soft, spongy, elongated slabs with deep longitudinal furrows, grey or reddish grey-brown (Brooker and Kleinig, 1994). Wallingford, UK: CABI. In: Proceedings of the 16th Southern Forest Tree Improvement Conference, 1981 May 27-28. Distribution. This species occurs in swamps and alongside estuaries in a narrow coastal strip, usually within a few kilometres of the ocean, from Rockhampton, Queensland south to Jervis Bay, New South Wales. having an approximate life in the ground of 8-25 years. In: Recovery Outline for the Kauai Ecosystem. The risk of introduction of E. robusta is moderate to high. After two cycles of improvement involving mass selection in the first cycle, and between-family plus within-family selection in the second cycle, E. robusta demonstrated sizeable gains for height (27%), diameter (33%), volume (63%), cold hardiness (19%), branch size and angle (14%) and stem straightness (9%) (Dvorak, 1981; Dvorak et al., 1981). Shrub and tree species for energy production. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press. ; 63 pl. Geary TF, Meskimen GF, Franklin EC, 1983. These tend to replace E. robusta on sites with very high water tables. Description. ... Eucalyptus robusta var. robusta belongs broadly to the eastern blue gums, subseries Saligninae, series Salignae, section Transversaria, subgenus Symphyomyrtus of the informal classification of Pryor and Johnson (1971). AVH is a collaborative project of the state, Commonwealth and territory herbaria, developed under the auspices of the Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH), representing the major Australian collections. (Durst, 1988). Species trials for biomass plantations in Hawaii: a first appraisal. 610. Biology of eucalypts. USDA Forest Service Research Paper, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, No. Growing eucalypts in Florida for industrial wood production. Host plants: Eucalyptus saligna ( Myrtaceae ). Wellington, New Zealand: External Aid Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Myrtaceae -- Myrtle family. Plantations of E. robusta have resulted in the conversion of open ecosystems into forest ecosystems. EDDMapS Distribution: This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts and records obtained from USDA Plants Database. Sta, No. forests, in Vicosa, Minas Gerais. 1982. New York, USA; Wiley Interscience. 2010a, Pritchardia hardyi (Makaleha pritchardia), US Fish and Wildlife Service, of up to 1 m (Boland et al., 1984). 32]; Many ref. MIT Press, It is often used as a timber tree, shade tree, ornamental tree, in shelter belts as a windbreak tree and in water catchment rehabilitation. World Checklist of Myrtaceae., Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Bootle KR, 1983. The resulting monocultures have raised concerns about loss of animal biological diversity, through loss of acorns that mammals and birds feed on, absence of hollows that in oak trees provide shelter and nesting sites for birds and small mammals and for bee colonies, as well as lack of downed trees in managed plantations (Sax, 2002; Orwa et al., 2009; I3N-Brazil, 2014). 1983, vii + 92 pp. Duke, J.A. Tissue culture of Eucalyptus. 1986, Ed. and Duke, J.A. Honey and pollen flora., iv + 263 pp. Termite resistance of wood species grown in Hawaii. ; 77 ref. 36(4):381–388. The only hosts are Eucalyptus spp., of which the most susceptible are Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus maidenii, Eucalyptus punctata, Eucalyptus robusta, Eucalyptus smithii and Eucalyptus viminalis (Griffith, 1959 in Walker 2008). The medicinal and poisonous plants PROTA4U web database., [ed. Forest Ecology and Management, 23(1):47-59; 29 ref. Livingstone, Ltd., Edinburgh For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org The planted forest and the private forest of the Madagascar highlands. PSW-152, ii + 6 pp. Eucalyptus plantations have often replaced oak woodlands in regions such as California, Spain and Portugal. On the offshore islands of south-east Queensland, such as Fraser Island, it is found on almost pure sands (Boland et al., 1984). Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Turnbull JW, Kleinig DA, 1980. An annotated bibliography of selected species with plantation potential. Most of these are in Brazil and South Africa, but there also large plantation areas in Argentina, Australia, India, Uruguay, Zambia and other countries (Eldridge et al . Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press. E. robusta has a dense, deep crown of dark green leaves and seasonally abundant creamy white flowers, and is suitable for shade, shelter and as an ornamental tree (Poynton, 1979; Hillis and Brown, 1984; Webb et al., 1984). It also grows on the offshore islands of North Stradbroke, Moreton and Fraser in south-east Queensland. (col.); 146 ref. World Checklist of Myrtaceae. Delaware. In: Santalum freycinetianum var. Morgantown, WV: Commune-Tech Associates. Buck MG, Imoto RH, 1982. Seed brown. f. – Risdon peppermint gum P: Species Eucalyptus robertsonii Blakely – narrow-leaf peppermint gum P: Species Eucalyptus robusta Sm. Eucalyptus robusta Sm. Dvorak WS, 1981. Eucalyptus robusta,, robusta. Field Guide to Eucalypts. Pacif. Patterns of genetic diversity in Australian tree species. Introduced to Hawaii around 1900. of southern and eastern Africa. Strategies for the genetic improvement of yield in Eucalyptus. Eucalypts for wood production. States Counties Points List Species Info. National database of exotic invasive species. Bot. ; 102 pl. Multipurpose tree and shrub seed directory. 1, 265pp. 1968. U.S. For. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Robusta Eucalyptus wood: its properties and uses. pp. PSW-176, ii + 13 pp. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Since 1890, significant areas of E. robusta have been planted in Madagascar, Mozambique, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka and Hawaii (Jacobs, 1981). Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics., viii + 384 pp. Brooker MIH, Kleinig DA, 1994. Sydney, Australia: Inkata Press. Information about Eucalyptus robusta diagnosis, including distribution and treatment advice Cookies on Plantwise Knowledge Bank Like most websites we use cookies. Tropical Forestry Papers 15. Aradhya KM, Phillips VD, 1993. 189-191. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org it is a human commensal). http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2. Canberra, Australia: Australian National University, pp. For. The trunk is usually straight and extends to about one half the height of the tree, or to two thirds of the tree height in dense stands on favourable sites. Information about Eucalyptus robusta diagnosis, including distribution and treatment advice Cookies on Plantwise Knowledge Bank Like most websites we use cookies. Chippendale GM, 1988. South African Forestry Journal, No. Eucalypts for planting., Ed. swamp mahogany šaltinis Valstybinės lietuvių kalbos komisijos… Distribution Native to southeastern Australia on a very narrow coastal strip (0–100 m elev. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. Coastal plant communities Newly exposed bark is very smooth and has a glossy surface, whereas older bark becomes finely rough and granular in texture. Eucalyptus species have hermaphrodite, protandrous flowers and are primarily pollinated by insects and birds (Griffin, 1989). Range Exp. Brooker MIH, Kleinig DA, 1983. In the USA, E. robusta is used to produce rotary cut construction grade veneer. Marcar NE, Crawford DF, Leppert PL, Jovanovic T, Floyd R, Farrow R, 1995. Performance of twelve selected Australian tree species on a saline site in southeast Queensland. 2010b, Santalum haleakalae var. 3. 64, 1962. pp. In: Harden GJ, ed. bivalva Eucalyptus robusta Smith, var. The Australasian Virtual Herbarium (AVH) is an online resource that provides immediate access to the wealth of plant specimen information held by Australian herbaria. HC; Distribution. Eucalyptus trials in the Northern Territory coastal region. In Sao Paulo, Brazil, E. robusta has been attacked by the bacterium Phytomonas tumifaciens [Rhizobium radiobacter] (National Academy of Science, 1983). Smith. A similar behavior has been observed in forest environment, but in this environment, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus robusta … Trees growing on wet sites in open stands often form both small buttresses and aerial roots in major branch crotches (Keating and Bolza, 1982). Melbourne, Australia: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. Niche analysis and tree species introduction. Definitions of eucalyptus robusta, synonyms, antonyms, ... Distribution and habitat. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. xv + 472 pp. Bees foraging on the nectar of E. robusta flowers produce dark amber, highly aromatic honey of acceptable flavour (Clemson, 1985). Login to download data. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 22(6):510-513. http://www.jeoronline.com/. PROTA, 2014. Pulpwood is the major use of E. robusta in Florida (Durst, 1988). Breeding strategty for Eucalyptus robusta in southern Florida. potential for the Republic of Panama. More general accounts including illustrations are provided by Boland et al. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm, CABI, Undated. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. E. robusta spreads by seeds. In Hawaii, Aradhya and Phillips (1993) studied the variation within the local land race of E. robusta using allozyme analysis. The Eucalypts. The leaf-eating beetle, Maecolaspis favosa, has reportedly caused serious damage to young seedlings and coppice shoots in Florida; older trees are unaffected (Geary et al., 1983). ; [refs]. Watt, J.M. The capsules are subglobular to more or less hemispherical, 5-21 mm long x 6-25 mm wide, glaucous or not, weakly 4 … Nairobi, Kenya: International Council for Research in Agroforestry. are prized for their fragrance, foliage and wood, but the species range widely in size, shape and distribution. PSW-10 pp. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO. eucalyptus: From the Greek eu ‘good or well’ and calypha ‘covered’, alluding to the calyx which covers the flower like a lid. ; [B]. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp. Eucalypts in Hawaii: a survey of practices and research programs. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. of ref. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii, revised edition., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press. It is not favoured for general building purposes because of degradation during drying (Bootle, 1983), or for steam-bending (Keating and Bolza, 1982). Dvorak WS, Franklin EC, Meskimen G, 1981. Flora of China. Tropical gardening and planting. PSW-8, 30 pp. Silvae Genetica, 42(1):9-15; 31 ref. Pryor (1976) lists E. robusta as one of the eucalypt species most commonly planted outside Australia. Sax DF, 2002. 1947. It regularly attains heights of 20-30 m, with a d.b.h. Description and pathogenicity of Cylindrocladium ovatum sp. (1988) list several examples of natural and manipulated hybrids involving E. robusta. Young trees are susceptible to termites (National Academy of Science, 1983). The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. Ramamonjisoa L, 1994. Comparison of Eucalyptus grandis provenances and seed orchards in a frost frequent environment. double recessive, or other unwanted phenotypes) occurs rapidly in generations after the F1 stage (Geary et al., 1983).Reproductive Biology. Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. The common name of swamp mahogany comes from its preferred habitat of swamps, and its timber's likeness to that of West Indies mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni). Myrtaceae Eucalyptus globulus: Description, Name and publication, Nativity and distribution: " eucalyptus: pods" in the retail potpourri trade. Genetic variability in fourteen provenances of Eucalyptus species in Hawaii. ; 40 ref. 1192 pp. South-eastern Australia. James R King and Roger G. Skolmen. Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnston RD, Kleinig DA, Turner JD, 1984. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Schubert TH, Whitesell CD, 1985. E. robusta is also close to E. pellita and E. resinifera, particularly in the bark characters, but the distribution of the latter two species is more widespread, occurring at higher altitude and well-drained sites. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Common fuelwood crops: a handbook for their Brundrett M, Bougher N, Dell B, Grove T, Malajczuk N, 1996. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species., Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. Washington DC, USA: USDA. ; [B]. Res. Lebot V, Ranaivoson L, 1994. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. xvi + 687 pp. This is the case in Madagascar, where extensive plantations of this species provide fuel, charcoal, transmission poles, construction timber, bridging material and flooring (Bertrand, 1992). nov. Canadian Journal of Botany, 71: 466-470. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. The logs are prone to sap-stain and pinhole borer attack, yet are moderately resistant to termite attack (Keating and Bolza, 1982; Webb et al., 1984). The juvenile leaves are petiolate, ovate, up to 19 × 8 cm, strongly discolorous, green, opposite for several pairs, then alternate. Forest Products Journal, 46(10):57-60. Eucalyptus marginata was first formally described in 1802 by James Edward Smith, whose description was published in Transactions of the Linnean Society of London.Smith noted that his specimens had grown from seeds brought from Port Jackson and noted a resemblance to both Eucalyptus robusta and E. pilularis. The fruits have valves that are usually joined across the orifice, in comparison other species which have free valves.Griffin et al. Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae). The sapwood is pale brown, 40 mm wide and susceptible to attack by lyctid borers (Keating and Bolza, 1982). On arrival he was given his ticket of leave but soon was reconvicted for forgery and sent to the penal settlement of Newcastle. It is also found offshore on Great Keppel, Moreton, Fraser and North and South Stradbroke Islands. Range Exp. Growth habits of the Eucalypts. Choice of species and seed sources. Older trees under stress by drought are attacked by eucalypt borers (Phoracantha sp. London: Edward Arnold Ltd. 1976, v + 82 pp. Wilcox MD, 1997. 1971. pp. Their machining, seasoning and related characteristics. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics. At least 5 million eucalyptus robusta trees were planted in Hawaii between 1910 and 1960 in total, for the sake of the forests, but also as a source for sustainable timber, delivering a hardwood that’s gorgeous and deep-red. Longwood FR, 1961. Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. ), scale (Eriococcus coriaceus [Acanthococcus coriaceus] and E. confusus [Acanthococcus confusus]) and Christmas beetle (Anoplognathus sp.). Online Database. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species., Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. However, the high humidity causes shrinkage and expansion which makes it unsuitable for furniture construction in most areas (Skolmen 1971, 1974). 52. Washington, DC, USA. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press. It exerts allopathic effects through auto toxicity, its leaf, stem& root extracts /leachates reduce seed 1980. Eucalyptus robusta swampmahogany This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Econ. Hartney VJ, 1982. - a review. Germination of Australian native plant seed., 46-57, 186-198; 57 ref. 6 pp. Eucalyptus oil has been reported to cause vocal cord dysfunction [2].A 46-year-old woman with vocal cord dysfunction associated with exposure to eucalyptus underwent inhalation challenges consisting of water, ammonia, pine oil, and a combination of eucalyptus (dried leaves) and ammonia. The Florida program has produced and assessed the potential of E. grandis × E. robusta hybrids. 14, 8-18; 11 ref. In: Flora of Australia. 15. PSW-9:12. bivalva (Blakely) Blakely, Key Eucalypts, ed. xii + 191 pp. Turnbull JW, Doran JC, 1987. It measures 116 feet high, with a trunk circumference of 177 inches and a crown spread of 78 feet. Pretoria, South Africa: Department of Forestry. ; B. Pryor LD, Johnson LAS, 1971. Opportunities for timber production in Hawaii. Research Paper, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, No. Marked by deeply furrowed dark gray-brown bark, eucalyptus robusta grows well in Halawa. robusta is a medium to large tree with a dense crown and long, spreading branches when grown in open ground. 5(1). The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. ... 2012. and Epithora dorsalis), bullseye borer (Phoracantha acanthocera, synonym Tryphocaria acanthocera) and cossid borer (Endoxyla spp.). US Fish and Wildlife Service, 38 pp. obusta eucalyptus (Eucalyptus robusta Sm.

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