Chinese cultivars are commonly shaped like a narrower, slightly pendulous cucumber. [23] The Oxford English Dictionary records that between 1797 and 1888, the name vegetable egg was also used. For example Central Park in New York is home to over 100 edible plant species, while one in every five plants in the Sonoran desert can be eaten. These include okra, radishes, kohlrabi, beets and turnips. [45][46] Eggplant can also be grilled, skinned and eaten as a salad called ensaladang talong. Bicolored cultivars with striping include 'Listada de Gandia' and 'Udumalapet'. Eggplant is a low crab vegetable and it rates low on the glycemic index chart. He also recognized the varieties aculeatum, inerme, and subinerme at that time. Modern descendants of this ancient Dravidian word include Malayalam vaṟutina and Tamil vaṟutuṇai. Shoots. The dish is characteristically served with the stalk attached. Brinjal seeds germinate one to two weeks after sowing. [10] It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory. The fruit should not be eaten raw[132]. In 2018, world production of eggplants was 54 million tonnes, led by China with 63% of the total and India with 24% (table). Timing is everything when it comes to harvesting the perfect eggplant. Potato. [19][20][21] Similar names are widespread in other languages, such as the Icelandic term eggaldin or the Welsh planhigyn ŵy. They are known as talong and is widely used in many stew and soup dishes, like pinakbet. Answer this question. However, the green part at the top, the calyx, does have to be removed when preparing an eggplant for cooking. Eggplant prefers hot weather, and when grown in cold climates or in areas with low humidity, the plants languish or fail to set and produce mature fruit. brownii. Maharashtra and the adjacent state of Karnataka also have an eggplant-based vegetarian pilaf called 'vangi bhat' [49].. Eggplant is often stewed, as in the French ratatouille, or deep-fried as in the Italian parmigiana di melanzane, the Turkish karnıyarık, or Turkish, Greek, and Levantine musakka/moussaka, and Middle Eastern and South Asian dishes. The Arabic word bāḏinjān was borrowed into Greek by the eleventh century CE. Palm. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost has passed. Many plants have edible leaves too, … [8] In 2018, China and India combined accounted for 87% of the world production of eggplants. Another way to prevent getting this page in the future is to use Privacy Pass. Nopales. Brinjal is usually transplanted rather than direct seeded in the field as it provides the best means of establishing a uniform and complete stand of plants. [31] This decision was deemed controversial, as it deviated from previous practices with other genetically modified crops in India. 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Mint (Mentha spp.) Other veggies in this family include potato, tomato, and peppers, which are considered nightshade vegetables. The dish has several variants, including rellenong talong which is stuffed with meat and vegetables. Eggplant is richer in nicotine than any other edible plant, with a concentration of 100 ng/g (or 0.01mg/100g). Due to its texture and bulk, it is sometimes used as a meat substitute in vegan and vegetarian cuisines. Cloudflare Ray ID: 5fba10eb4e13ef55 Plant eggplant when the soil temperature is at least 60°F, not sooner than 2 weeks after the last frost in spring. [59] Is brooccoli a plant or flower? [citation needed] Colors vary from white to yellow or green, as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. Grow eggplant plant in full sun sheltered from the wind. [55], The potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella) is an oligophagous insect that prefers to feed on plants of the family Solanaceae such as eggplants. The genetic origin of eggplants, at least those belonging to Solanum melongena (our common culinary eggplants), is presumed to be India or Southeast Asia, hence the immense biodiversity of eggplants in those parts of the world. The aforementioned watermelon rind. First recorded in 1763, the word "eggplant" was originally applied to white cultivars, which look very much like hen's eggs (see image). Eggplant is widely used in its native India, for example in sambar (a tamarind lentil stew), dalma (a dal preparation with vegetables, native to Odisha), chutney, curry, and achaar (a pickled dish). Answer By Toppr. Answer. Eggplant (US,[1] Australia,[2] New Zealand, anglophone Canada), aubergine (UK,[3] Ireland, Quebec) or brinjal (South Asia, South Africa)[4] is a plant species in the nightshade family Solanaceae. They are often deep fried and made into dishes such as yúxiāng-qiézi ("fish fragrance eggplant")[38] or di sān xiān ("three earthen treasures"). In Brinjal or eggplant (Solanum melongena), fruits are used as vegetable. A Levantine specialty is makdous, another pickling of eggplants, stuffed with red peppers and walnuts in olive oil. Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include 'Harris Special Hibush', 'Burpee Hybrid', 'Bringal Bloom', 'Black Magic', 'Classic', 'Dusky', and 'Black Beauty'. However, Solanum incanum and cockroach berry (S. capsicoides), other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni, respectively, were occasionally considered eggplant varieties, but this is not correct. Broccoli is a plant, but the edible parts humans consume are unopened flowers. For the average adult, 400 mg of solanine would be life-threatening. Hand pollination by shaking the flowers improves the set of the first blossoms. Seeds, skin and stems are the edible parts of the plant. The plant species is believed to have originated in India, where it continues to grow wild,[9] or in Africa. Plants can look just as good as they taste. It can be baked, stewed or added to soups, curries etc[183]. The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. ovigerum and S. trongum. The flowers are white to purple in color, with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. Flowers and leaves have minty flavor; use in teas, fruit salad, cocktails, sauces, … Many of the pests and diseases that afflict other solanaceous plants, such as tomato, capsicum, and potato, are also troublesome to eggplants. 1.1K views. Although the nutrient value of eggplant isn’t as impressive as other vegetables, there are some unique phytochemicals (naturally occurring plant chemicals) in eggplant. [47] Another popular dish is adobong talong, which is diced eggplant prepared with vinegar, soy sauce, and garlic as an adobo. It can be sliced and deep-fried, then served with plain yogurt (optionally topped with a tomato and garlic sauce), such as in the Turkish dish patlıcan kızartması (meaning fried aubergines), or without yogurt, as in patlıcan şakşuka. What are the edible parts of Brinjal plant? [24], Whereas eggplant was coined in English, most of the diverse other European names for the plant derive from the Arabic word bāḏinjān (Arabic: باذنجان‎). Young ears of corn and the unfurled tassel. A Spanish dish called escalivada in Catalonia calls for strips of roasted aubergine, sweet pepper, onion, and tomato. Some of the lesser-known vegetables also have leaves that are edible. [44] However the most popular eggplant dish is tortang talong, an omelette made from grilling an eggplant, dipping it into beaten eggs, and pan-frying the mixture. Many edible plants need more maintenance than most common ornamental plants, such as regular pruning, supplemental watering, soil amendments, and frequent monitoring especially during harvest. Raw leaves eaten fresh may even be slightly poisonous in some cases. Green or purple cultivars with white striping also exist. According to the entry brinjal in the Oxford English Dictionary, the Sanskrit word vātin-gāna denoted 'the class (that removes) the wind-disorder (windy humour)': that is, vātin-gāna came to be the name for eggplants because they were thought to cure flatulence. Why are My Eggplants Seedy? Solanum trongum Poir. • The fruit is said to be very nutritious[7]. Pods of English peas. What are the edible parts of Brinjal plant? [63], Like the potato and S. lichtensteinii, but unlike the tomato, which then was generally put in a different genus, the eggplant was also described as S. esculentum, in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work. An example of it use is in the dish hasamiyaki (挟み焼き) in which slices of eggplant are grilled and filled with a meat stuffing. [31] This variety was designed to give the plant resistance to lepidopteran insects such as the brinjal fruit and shoot borer (Leucinodes orbonalis) and fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera). In Iranian cuisine, it is blended with whey as kashk e bademjan, tomatoes as mirza ghassemi, or made into stew as khoresht-e-bademjan. "'egg-plant, n." OED Online, Oxford University Press, July 2018, Unless otherwise stated, material in this section derives from. Good sanitation and crop rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease, the most serious of which is Verticillium. n. The fruit of the eggplant{1}. Bt brinjal is a transgenic eggplant that contains a gene from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. [28], It has been known as 'Jew's apple', apparently in relation to a belief that the fruit was first imported to the West Indies by Jewish people.[29]. For this reason, it should generally not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives. The Italian melanzana, through folk-etymology, was adapted to mela insana ('mad apple'): already by the thirteenth century, this name had given rise to a tradition that eggplants could cause insanity. The most widely cultivated varieties—cultivars—in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid, 12–25 cm (4 1⁄2–10 in) long and 6–9 cm (2 1⁄2–3 1⁄2 in) broad with a dark purple skin. Most commonly purple, the spongy, absorbent fruit is used in several cuisines. S. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. aethiopicum. The Greek loans took a variety of forms, but crucially they began with m-, partly because Greek lacked the initial b- sound and partly through folk-etymological association with the Greek word μέλας (melas), 'black'. You may need to download version 2.0 now from the Chrome Web Store. Semiwild types can grow much larger, to 225 cm (7 ft 5 in), with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad. Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include 'Rosa Bianca', 'Violetta di Firenze', 'Bianca Sfumata di Rosa' (heirloom), and 'Prosperosa' (heirloom). And while mostly enjoyed for its edible fruit, it also has a history of medicinal use. Veg recipes of India. The name eggplant is usual in North American English and Australian English. Eggplant seediness is usually due to improper harvesting or harvesting at the wrong time. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Imperial examination in Chinese mythology, "A Comparative Genetic Linkage Map of Eggplant (Solanum melongena) and Its Implications for Genome Evolution in the Solanaceae", "Patterns of Food Consumption in Early Modern Iran", Lost Crops of Africa, Volume II: Vegetables, "Eggplant, White — Solanum ovigerum Dun. Rinsing, draining, and salting the sliced fruit before cooking may remove the bitterness. The plant and fruit have a profusion of English names. These leaves are edible and may be eaten cooked or fresh, or used as a garnish. Another version of the dish, begun-pora (eggplant charred or burnt), is very popular in Bangladesh and the east Indian states of Odisha and West Bengal where the pulp of the vegetable is mixed with raw chopped shallot, green chilies, salt, fresh coriander, and mustard oil. Botanically classified as a berry, the fruit contains numerous small, soft, edible seeds that taste bitter because they contain or are covered in nicotinoid alkaloids, like the related tobacco. On wild plants, the fruit is less than 3 cm (1 1⁄4 in) in diameter; in cultivated forms: 30 cm (12 in) or more in length are possible for long, narrow types or the large fat purple ones common to the West. If you are on a personal connection, like at home, you can run an anti-virus scan on your device to make sure it is not infected with malware. A much wider range of shapes, sizes, and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. and Solanum melongena var. Arugula (Eruca sativa) If you want to add a mustardy, tangy flavor to salads, give Arugula a try. Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to developing certain allergic hypersensitivity reactions) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant, which may be because eggplant is high in histamines. [56], The color of purple skin cultivars is due to the anthocyanin nasunin. According to the United States Department of Agriculture, eggplant leaves are toxic and narcotic, like many members of the nightshade family , so they are inedible . However, since eggplants can be particularly susceptible to pests such as whiteflies, they are sometimes grown with slightly less susceptible plants, such as chili pepper, as a sacrificial trap crop. A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens. Free e-mail watchdog. Eggplant, (Solanum melongena), also called aubergine or Guinea squash, tender perennial plant of the nightshade family (), grown for its edible fruits.Eggplant requires a warm climate and has been cultivated in its native Southeast Asia since remote antiquity. Eggplant fruit is nutritious and flavorful, with only 38 calories in one cup. Early forms include: From these forms came the botanical Latin melongēna. In other parts of the world, eggplants are known as aubergine or brinjal. Scopoli's S. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant, and that of Blanco to S. If you find too many seeds in an eggplant, it’s time to fine-tune your eggplant harvesting practices. Mustard plant have two edible parts (1) Leaves are used as leafy vegetable (2) Seeds of mustard plant are used to extract mustard oil.

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